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AMSOIL vs. Mobil 1

409,000-Miles Without An Oil Change

AMSOIL Excels in API Sequence IIIF Performance Test

Motor Oil Performance Tests & Comparisons

Temperature Extremes Call For Superior Motor Oils

Why Harley-Davidson Owners Choose AMSOIL

Synthetic Motorcycle Oil & Harley-Davidson Warranty Issues

AMSOIL Synthetic Gear Lube Outperforms Valvoline Gear Lube

Motor Oil Test and Comparison

8.2% More MPG With AMSOIL Synthetic Lubricants

AMSOIL Proves Superior In Clark County Field Test

AMSOIL Series 3000 Synthetic 5W-30 Heavy Duty Diesel Oil is Correct Choice for Jeff Foster Trucking

AMSOIL Products Improve Efficiency and Reduce Operating Costs for Gerlach Trucking

What is the Noack Volatility Test?

What is the Four-Ball Wear Test?

What is TBN?

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Two-cycle Engine Applications and Lubrication Needs

Two-cycle engines can be found nearly everywhere these days. They are used in dozens of applications and in a wide variety of designs for everything from work and recreation to power generation. Two-cycle engines have design differences and operate under conditions that require different oil chemistries than their four-cycle counterparts. In order to recommend a lubricant for a two-cycle engine, one needs to know how this engine operates, why it is used in place of a four-cycle engine and where and in what type of applications it is used.

What is a two-cycle engine?
The terms "two-cycle" and "two-stroke" are often inter-changed when speaking about two-cycle engines. These engines derive their name from the amount of directional changes that the pistons make during each power stroke. Internal combustion engines are used to produce mechanical power from the chemical energy contained in hydrocarbon fuels. The power-producing part of the motor's operating cycle starts inside the motor's cylinders with a compression process. Following this compression, the burning of the fuel-air mixture then releases the fuel's chemical energy and produces high-temperature, high-pressure combustion products. These gases then expand within each cylinder and transfer work to the piston. Thus, as the engine is operated continuously, mechanical power is produced. Each upward or downward movement of the piston is called a stroke. There are two commonly used internal combustion engine cycles: the two-stroke cycle and the four-stroke cycle.

Two-cycle motors deliver one power impulse for each revolution of the crankshaft.

How are two-cycle engines different from four-cycle engines?
The fundamental difference between two-cycle engines and four-cycle engines is in their gas exchange process, or more simply, the removal of the burned gases at the end of each expansion process and the induction of a fresh mixture for the next cycle. The two-cycle engine has an expansion, or power stroke, in each cylinder during each revolution of the crankshaft. The exhaust and the charging processes occur simultaneously as the piston moves through its lowest or bottom center position.

In a four-cycle engine, the burned gasses are first displaced by the piston during an upward stroke, and then a fresh charge enters the cylinder during the following downward stroke. This means that four-cycle engines require two complete turns of the crankshaft to make a power stroke, versus the single turn necessary in a two-cycle engine. In other words, two-cycle engines operate on 360 degrees of crankshaft rotation, whereas four-cycle engines operate on 720 degrees of crankshaft rotation.

A four-cycle engine requires four strokes of the piston (two up and two down) and two revolutions of the crankshaft to complete one combustion cycle and provide one power impulse.

Where are two-cycle engines used?
Two-cycle engines are inexpensive to build and operate when compared to four-cycle engines. They are lighter in weight and they can also produce a higher power-to-weight ratio. For these reasons, two-cycle engines are very useful in applications such as chainsaws, Weedeaters, outboards, lawnmowers and motorcycles, to name just a few. Two-cycle engines are also easier to start in cold temperatures. Part of this may be due to their design and the lack of an oil sump. This is a reason why these engines are also commonly used in snowmobiles and snow blowers.

Some advantages and disadvantages of two-cycle engines
Because two-cycle engines can effectively double the number of power strokes per unit time when compared to four-cycle engines, power output is increased. However, it does not increase by a factor of two. The outputs of two-cycle engines range from only 20 to 60 percent above those of equivalent-size four-cycle units. This lower than expected increase is a result of the poorer than ideal charging efficiency, or in other words, incomplete filling of the cylinder volume with fresh fuel and air. There is also a major disadvantage in this power transfer scenario. The higher frequency of combustion events in the two-cycle engine results in higher average heat transfer rates from the hot burned gases to the motor's combustion chamber walls. Higher temperatures and higher thermal stresses in the cylinder head (especially on the piston crown) result. Traditional two-cycle engines are also not highly efficient because a scavenging effect allows up to 30 percent of the unburned fuel/oil mixture into the exhaust. In addition, a portion of the exhaust gas remains in the combustion chamber during the cycle. These inefficiencies contribute to the power loss when compared to four-cycle engines and explains why two-cycle engines can achieve only up to 60 percent more power.

How are two-cycle engines lubricated?
Two-cycle motors are considered total-loss type lubricating systems. Because the crankcase is part of the intake process, it cannot act as an oil sump as is found on four-cycle engines. Lubricating traditional two-cycle engines is done by mixing the oil with the fuel. The oil is burned upon combustion of the air/fuel mixture. Direct Injection engines are different because the fuel is directly injected into the combustion chamber while the oil is injected directly into the crankcase. This process is efficient because the fuel is injected after the exhaust port closes, and therefore more complete combustion of fuel occurs and more power is developed. Direct injection engines have a higher power density than traditional two-cycle engines. Because the oil is directly injected into the crankcase, less oil is necessary and lower oil consumption results (80:1 range). Direct Injection motors have higher combustion temperatures, often up to 120 degrees F. They also require more lubricity than traditional two-cycle motors.

AMSOIL Synthetic 2-Cycle Oils
AMSOIL Synthetic 2-Cycle Oils are formulated to provide maximum performance in all types of two-stroke applications. Even though AMSOIL 2-Cycle Oils have been optimized for specific applications, they are multi-functional and recommended for use in many applications.


Related Article: A Look at Snowmobile Exhaust Power Vavles


Why Motor Oil Deteriorates

It is common knowledge that, at some point, engine oil must be changed. It's something that is preached relentlessly to vehicle owners by vehicle manufacturers, quick lubes and oil companies. But consumers are widely unaware of what exactly makes oil changes necessary.

Many factors contribute to a motor oil's demise, but it is essentially the accumulation of contaminants in the oil and chemical changes in the oil itself that make a motor unfit for further service. With time, it is inevitable that the oil will be contaminated by dirt or sludge, or succumb to the extreme pressures or temperatures found inside an engine. AMSOIL Motor Oils are formulated with the industry's most advanced synthetic base stocks and additive packages to combat the forces that deteriorate conventional oils. (read more)


What is the NOACK Volatility Test?
Volatization is a term used to describe what happens to a fluid as it is heated to the point it begins to "boil off." Upon reaching a certain temperature, oil will begin to lose some of its lighter weight molecules as they "boil off" and leave heavier weight molecules behind. Not only does this cause higher oil consumption, this process can also cause increased viscosity making the oil more difficult to circulate through the lubrication system. (read more)


Quality Takes Priority at AMSOIL

The AMSOIL chemical laboratory plays an important role in the daily operations at AMSOIL headquarters. The lab fulfills tech service requests, performs competitor testing and comparisons, and works on the research and development of products at AMSOIL. One of the most important jobs at the lab is quality control. AMSOIL is known for formulating high-quality products and the AMSOIL chemists ensure that everything coming in and going out meets AMSOIL standards. How do they do it? (read more)


Premium AMSOIL Synthetic Motor Oils offer the longest drain intervals on the market, unsurpassed protection and performance that effectively extends equipment life and improved fuel economy, saving customers money at the pump and reducing the nation's dependence on foreign oil.


"AMSOIL INC. warrants that the use of its lubricants will not cause mechanical damage to any mechanically sound equipment when AMSOIL INC. products are used in full compliance with the company's recommendations and instructions."


FULL WARRANTY


AMSOIL synthetic motor oils are formulated to surpass engine test specifications, offering protection far greater than competing motor oils for extended drain intervals. Most synthetic oil manufacturers make no claim to extended drain intervals, deferring to the maintenance schedule provided by the vehicle manufacturer. With its unparalleled oil and warranty program, AMSOIL offers consumers unprecedented protection and economics.


Another AMSOIL First

More than 20 years ago, AMSOIL began using the NOACK volatility test as a comparison tool and measurement of quality. Back then, nearly every oil tested side-by-side with AMSOIL synthetic motor oils failed, and those that passed barely squeaked by. Other oil companies paid no attention to NOACK results until Ford Motor Company made it a requirement for service fill oils, validating what AMSOIL had said all along.


THE NOACK Volatility Test
The NOACK Volatility Test determines the evaporation loss of lubricants in high temperature service. The more motor oils vaporize, the thicker and heavier they become, contributing to poor circulation, reduced fuel economy and increased oil consumption, wear and emissions. AMSOIL Synthetic Motor Oil resists high temperature volatization better than other motor oils. AMSOIL Synthetic Motor Oil maintains peak fuel efficiency and reduces oil consumption and emissions.

AMSOIL Now An ISO Certified Manufacturer
AMSOIL recently received ISO 9001:2000 certification of our Quality Management System (QMS). NSF International Strategic Registrations is the registrar that has verified our QMS meets the requirements of the ISO 9001:2000 standard, the most widely utilized quality standard throughout the world for quality management systems. ISO standards are used by over 300,000 companies worldwide setting rigorous standards for businesses, government and industry.

ISO 9001:2000 is applicable to any manufacturing and service organization providing a framework for system development that focuses on the customer, quality system performance and ongoing improvement. AMSOIL received ISO 9001:2000 registration under the scope: synthetic lubricants blending, packaging, and other fulfillment directly associated with lubricant product.

The ISO certification puts AMSOIL in line with some of the most efficient companies in the world. It is further assurance that the products and services AMSOIL provides will continue to maintain the high level of quality the company always demanded.


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